Industrial Control System (ICS)
Industrial control system Industrial control system (ICS) is a general term that encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used for Process control
industrial process control. Such systems can range from a few modular panel-mounted controllers to large interconnected and interactive distributed control systems with many thousands of field connections. All systems receive data received from remote sensors measuring process variables (PVs), compare these with desired set points (SPs) and derive command functions which are used to control a process though the final control elements (FCEs), such as control valves. The larger systems are usually implemented by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, or distributed control systems (DCS), and programmable logic controllers (PLCs), though SCADA and PLC systems are scalable down to small systems with few control loops. Such systems are extensively used in industries such as chemical processing, pulp and paper manufacture, power generation, oil and gas processing and telecommunications. Most ICS systems were designed when the threat of cyberattacks was extremely low. As such, most ICS environments do not incorporate modern IT security controls such as strong authentication, asset inventory, regular patching, continuous monitoring, defense-in-depth and incident response.