Knowledge Base for IIoT, ICS & SCADA Security

Your trusted source for the latest ICS vulnerability research, industrial threat intelligence, and educational information about best practices for IIoT, ICS and SCADA security.

ICS Hacking Exposed Chapter 1 – Intro to ICS/SCADA Security

Get your complimentary copy of Chapter 1 from this recently-published guide to ICS and SCADA security. Written by ICS/SCADA security experts, this educational chapter describes what’s driving IT/OT convergence and how ICS/SCADA security is different than IT security. It also covers major components, standards and terminology commonly used in industrial environments today (SCADA, DCS, PLC, HMI, NIST SP 800-82, PROFINET, etc.).


BlackEnergy Report

According to ICS-ALERT-14-281-01B, BlackEnergy malware targets a vulnerability (CVE-2014-0751) in HMI systems from GE CIMPLICITY, Siemens WinCC, and Advantech/Broadwin WebAccess. CyberX’s threat intelligence team reverse-engineered BlackEnergy3 and discovered it was designed to perform exfiltration of sensitive information from OT networks (especially valuable during the reconnaissance phase of the cyber kill chain). We found that BlackEnergy3 can penetrate OT networks — even when they’re theoretically isolated from IT networks by a firewall — via RPC communication using named pipes over SMB.


ICS Hacking Exposed Chapter 2 – ICS Risk Assessments

Download your complimentary overview of best practices risk assessments for ICS and SCADA security, and learn how to implement an ICS-focused risk mitigation framework that’s practical and efficient. This chapter provides specific examples of ICS vulnerabilities and security policies, and describes how to identify assets, network topology, data flows, and vulnerabilities without impacting production systems.



Months before Mirai malware was found to be infecting IoT devices, CyberX’s threat intelligence team discovered RADIATION. Targeting surveillance cameras commonly used in industrial environments, the RADIATION malware is much more sophisticated than Mirai because it exploits a zero-day vulnerability in IIoT devices rather than open ports and default credentials that can easily be addressed. We’ve since identified 25,000 Internet-accessible devices compromised by RADIATION, and found that cybercriminals are now providing DDOS-for-Hire services using this massive botnet army.


Rockwell Automation Vulnerability Report

Researchers from CyberX’s threat intelligence team have uncovered a remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability in the Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1100/1400 families of Rockwell Automation PLCs. With a CVSS score of 9.8, the stack-based buffer overflow vulnerability (CVE-2016-0868) was described in ICS-CERT advisory ICSA-16-026-02. CyberX first demonstrated the exploit at the 2015 ICS Cybersecurity Conference, and it was subsequently described in detail in the chapter on “ICS Zero-Day Vulnerability Research” from the book “Hacking Exposed Industrial Control Systems.”


Video from S4x17 ICS Cybersecurity Conference – Down the Rabbit Hole: Insights from Real-World ICS Vulnerability Assessments & Threat Research

In this technical session, we discuss zero-day vulnerabilities our threat research team has discovered in industrial firewalls and PLCs. We also describe RADIATION, the IIoT DDoS malware our platform discovered in the network of one of our customers. Finally, we summarize what we’ve learned about the current state of ICS security, based on automated vulnerability assessments we’ve performed in real-world OT environments across a diverse range of industries.


CyberX Reveals How Mirai Uses GRE Floods to Generate Largest DDoS Attack on Record

CyberX’s threat intelligence team was the first to report that the Mirai attack on Brian Krebs’ website used GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) floods to generate its massive volume of 665 Gbps of traffic — and this post reveals how we did it. By reverse-engineering Mirai, our team found that Mirai implements GRE (a tunneling protocol) using Transparent Ethernet Bridging, unlike previous DDoS attacks which relied on ICMP, SYN and a variety of UDP reflection and amplification attacks. CyberX also uncovered which specific CNC servers were used in the attack, how Mirai spreads using telnet, and a list of affected vendors.

170 Cybersecurity Webinar: Protecting Your Operations from Threats & Attacks

According to Deloitte, 31% of manufacturers have never conducted a vulnerability assessment, and 50% only do them occasionally. Most have no idea what vulnerabilities and malware are in their networks or where to start to address them. In this educational webinar, ICS cybersecurity veteran Jim Blaschke discusses what’s driving the convergence of IT and OT in manufacturing environments — and how manufacturers can protect themselves from insider threats and targeted attacks as well as operational incidents that cause downtime.